Languages

Etruscan

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Introduction

The Etruscan language was spoken and written by Etruscan civilization in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. However, Latin superseded Etruscan completely, leaving only a few documents and a few loanwords in Latin (e.g., persona from Etruscan ¤ćersu), and some place-names, such as Roma.

The verb

Verbs had an indicative mood and an imperative mood. Tenses were present and past. The past tense had an Active voice and a Passive voice.

  • Present active Etruscan uses a verbal root with a zero suffix or -a without distinction to number or person: ar, ar-a, "he, she, we, you, they make."
  • Past or preterite active The -ce or -ke suffix to the root produces a third person singular active.
  • Past passive The third person past passive is formed with -che.

Sample verb: ar 'to make'

Present Past/Preterite
Active Passive
Etruscan ar / ara arce arche
Ebglish he, she, we, you, they make he made was made

Click verbs to conjugate them in the table above!

References

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