Languages

Finnish

Languages.Finnish History

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||3rd||ei||eivšt||

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||3rd||ei||eivät||

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||3rd||ei||eivät||

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||3rd||ei||eivšt||

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!!External links
*[[http://www.finnlectura.fi/verkkosuomi/Morfologia/sivu231.htm#Verbit|Finnish verb conjugation at Finn Lectura]]

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!!!The Negative Verb
The negative in Finnish is actually another verb form, although this one doesn't change for tense or mood. Each grammatical person, singular and plural, has its own form.

||border=1 
||!Person||!Singular||!Plural||
||1st||en||emme||
||2nd||et||ette|| 
||3rd||ei||eivät||

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*[[Verbs/TheKarelianDialect|Karelian dialect verbs]]
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*[[Verbs/FinnishRegionalisms | Regional verbs and conjugation]]
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!!See also
*[[Verbs/AllFormsOfFinnishVerb | All the forms of a Finnish verb]]
*[[http://www.verbix.com/languages/finnish.shtml | Finnish verb conjugation at www.verbix.com]]

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Finnish (suomi, or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91.7%) and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. It is one of the official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Finnish dialect Kven is spoken in Norway.
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Finnish (suomi, or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91.7%) and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. It is one of the official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and [[Languages.Meankieli|Meänkieli]], a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Finnish dialect [[Languages.Kven|Kven]] is spoken in Norway.
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* Language family: [[!Uralic]], Finnic
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* Language family: [[!Uralic]], [[!Finnic]]
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[[#IntroductionBegin]]
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[[#IntroductionEnd]]
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Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is typologically between inflected and agglutinative languages. It modifies and inflects the forms of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence.
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Finnish is a member of the [[!Uralic]] language family and is typologically between inflected and agglutinative languages. It modifies and inflects the forms of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence.
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[[!Language]]
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[[!Language]]

!!References
(:verbixbooks language="suo":)
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!!Additional info
Categories: [[!Uralic
]] languages
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[[!Language]]
August 26, 2007, at 06:41 PM by toti - Added script info into fact corner
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* Script: [[!Latin script]]
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* Language family: [[Families.Uralic|Uralic]], Finnic
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* Language family: [[!Uralic]], Finnic
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!!Additional info
Categories: [[!Uralic]] languages
August 24, 2007, at 07:10 AM by 83.245.230.111 -
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* Language family: [[Families.Uralic]], Finnic
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* Language family: [[Families.Uralic|Uralic]], Finnic
August 24, 2007, at 07:10 AM by 83.245.230.111 -
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* Language family: [[Uralic]], Finnic
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* Language family: [[Families.Uralic]], Finnic
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There are almost no irregular verbs in Finnish. However, the change between strong and weak grade of inflected verb forms might appear as irregularities for students of the Finnish language.

!!!Regular verbs

There are six conjugations in Finnish
: 
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!!!Conjugation groups of Finnish verbs
Finnish verbs can be divided into following groups according to the verbal ending:
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There are almost no irregular verbs in Finnish. However, the change between strong and weak grade of inflected verb forms might appear as irregularities for students of the Finnish language.
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!!!Irregular verbs
There are some verbs that don't follow the verb patterns described above. Here are some of them:

!!!!Irregularities in Present
*[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=olla|olla]] 'to be'.
*[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=nähdä|nähdä]] 'to see'.
*conjugation according to the meaning
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=aueta|aueta]]
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=tavata|tavata]]
*[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=seistä|seistä]] (defective, most forms substituted with verb seisoa)
*[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=keritä|keritä]]
*[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=iljetä|iljetä]]
*[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=lohkoa|lohkoa]]
!!!!Irregularities in Imperfect
*t > s in imperfect: [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kaivertaa|kaivertaa]]
*add 'o' in the stem: [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=virkkaa|virkkaa]]
*irregular imperfect: [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=käydä|käydä]]
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#Verbs ending in 2 vowels (vowel + a/)
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=puhua|puh''ua'']], pyöriä
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#Verbs ending in 2 vowels (vowel + a/ä)
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=puhua|puh''ua'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=pyöriä|pyör''iä'']]
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**soida, myydä
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****[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=soida|soi''da'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=myydä|myy''dä'']]
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**nuolla, kävellä
**panna, mennä
**lakaista, inist√§ 
to:
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=nuolla|nuol''la'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kävellä|kävel''lä'']]
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=panna|pan''na'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=mennä|men''nä'']]
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=lakaista|lakai''sta'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=inistä|inis''tä'']]
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**palata, pörrätä
**raivota, löhötä
**kaluta, älytä
to:
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=palata|pal''ata'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=pörrätä|pörr''ätä'']]
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=raivota|raiv''ota'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=löhötä|löh''ötä'']]
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kaluta|kal''uta'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=älytä|äl''ytä'']]
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**harkita, hillitä
to:
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=harkita|hark''ita'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=hillitä|hill''itä'']]
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**tummeta, himmetä

to:
**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=tummeta|tumm''eta'']], [[Verbix:language=suo&verb=himmetä|himm''etä'']]

!!!Verbs with changes between weak and strong grade
The change between weak and strong grade occurs in between 2nd and 3rd syllable from the end of the verb.

!!!!Group A
Only verbs belonging to the 1st conjugation can have this kind of change of weak/strong forms. The change occurs in indicative present and imperfect in all forms but the 3rd persons.

||border=1
||!strong||!weak||!example||
||kk||k||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=haukkua|haukkua]]||
||pp||p||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=leppyä|leppyä]]||
||tt||t||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=tuottaa|tuottaa]]||
||k||√ė||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=hakea|hakea]]||
||p||v||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=sopia|sopia]]||
||t||d||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=hoitaa|hoitaa]]||
||nk||ng||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=tunkea|tunkea]]||
||mp||mm||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=ampua|ampua]]||
||lt||ll||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=suoltaa|suoltaa]]||
||nt||nn||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=juontaa|juontaa]]||
||rt||rr||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=nakertaa|nakertaa]]||
||lke||lje||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=polkea|polkea]]||
||rke||rje||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=särkeä|särkeä]]||

!!!!Group B
Verbs belonging to the 3rd (ending in -lla/-llä), 4th and 6th conjugation can have this change. The change takes place in the 3rd persons in indicative present and imperfect.

||border=1
||!strong||!weak||!example||!Conjugation||
||k||kk||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=lakata|lakata]]||4||
||p||pp||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=napata|napata]]||4||
||t||tt||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=ajatella|ajatella]]||3||
||√ė||k||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=taata|taata]]||4||
||v||p||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kaveta|kaveta]]||6||
||d||t||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=madella|madella]]||3||
||ng||nk||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kangeta|kangeta]]||6||
||mm||mp||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kammata|kammata]]||4||
||ll||lt||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=vallata|vallata]]||4||
||nn||nt||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kannella|kannella]]||3||
||rr||rt||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=kerrata|kerrata]]||4||
||lje||lke||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=rohjeta|rohjeta]]||6||
||rje||rke||[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=tarjeta|tarjeta]]||6||

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**Verbix:language=suo&verb=puhua|puh''ua'']], pyöriä
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**[[Verbix:language=suo&verb=puhua|puh''ua'']], pyöriä
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**puhua, pyöriä
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**Verbix:language=suo&verb=puhua|puh''ua'']], pyöriä
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>>rframe font-size:smaller<<
!!Fact corner
* Language: Finnish
* Alternate names: suomi
* [[SIL-code]]: %newwin%[[Ethnologue:fin]]
* Language family: [[Uralic]], Finnic
* Number of speakers: 5,232,728
>><<
(:*toc:)

!!Introduction
Finnish (suomi, or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91.7%) and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. It is one of the official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Finnish dialect Kven is spoken in Norway.

Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is typologically between inflected and agglutinative languages. It modifies and inflects the forms of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence.

!!The Verb

Verbs gain personal suffixes for each person; these suffixes are grammatically more important than pronouns, which are often not used at all in standard Finnish. There are four persons, first ("I, we"), second ("you, you"), third ("s/he, they") and indefinite (often called impersonal or "passive", similar to e.g. English "people say/do/…"). There are four tenses, namely present, past, perfect and pluperfect; the system mirrors the Germanic system. The future tense is not needed due to context and the telic contrast. For example, luen kirjan "I read a book (completely)" indicates a future, when luen kirjaa "I read a book (not yet complete)" indicates present.

There are almost no irregular verbs in Finnish. However, the change between strong and weak grade of inflected verb forms might appear as irregularities for students of the Finnish language.

!!!Regular verbs

There are six conjugations in Finnish:

#Verbs ending in 2 vowels (vowel + a/)
**puhua, pyöriä
#Verbs ending in -da/-d
**soida, myydä
#Verbs ending in -la/-lä, -na/nä or -sta/-stä
**nuolla, kävellä
**panna, mennä
**lakaista, inistä
#Verbs ending in -ata/-ätä, -ota/-ötä or -uta/-ytä
**palata, pörrätä
**raivota, löhötä
**kaluta, älytä
#Verbs ending in -ita/-itä
**harkita, hillitä
#Verbs ending in -eta/-etä
**tummeta, himmetä

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