Languages

Gujari

Fact corner

  • Language: Gujari
  • Alternate names: Gujuri, Gujer, Gujar, Gujjari, Gurjar, Gojri, Gogri, Kashmir Gujuri, Rajasthani Gujuri, Gojari, Hindki, Parimu
  • SIL-code: Ethnologue:gju
  • Language family: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified
  • Number of speakers: 992,000
  • Script: Arabic script.

Introduction

Gujari is a variety of Rajasthani spoken by the Gujjars of Northern-Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. As it continues to be a significant language in the subcontinent, Gujari has richly contributed to literary traditions and treasure in the forms of Mathnavis, prose, folklore and religious literature.

The verb

Gujari distinguishes present, past, and future tense.

Tense/Aspect/MoodStructureExampleTranslation
Unspecified Habitual - Contingent FutureV-PCčal-ū~'I go'; 'I may go'
Past UnspecifiedV-PC PAST-ACčal-ū~ th-ᴐ'I used to go'
Definite FutureV-PC FUT-ACčal-ū~ k-ᴐ'I will go'
Present ContinuousV-PC /lag/-AC (/w/-AC)čal-ū~ lag-ᴐ (w-ᴐ)'I am going'
Past ContinuousV-PC PAST-AC /lag/-AC (/w/-AC)čal-ū~ th-ᴐ lag-ᴐ (w-ᴐ)'I was going'
Present HabitualV-PC /ho/-PCbɛs-ū~ hò-ū~'I sit (repeatedly)'
Past HabitualV-PC /ho/-PC PAST-ACsad-ū~ hò-ū~ th-ᴐ'I called (repeatedly)'
Negated FutureV-/s/-PCčal-s-ū~'I will not go
Habitual (Negated) - ContrafactiveV-IMPFV-ACčat-ᴐ'he doesn't go'; 'he would go'
Subjunctive HabitualV-IMPFV-AC /ho/-PCā-t-ᴐ hò-wɛ'(perhaps) he comes'
Presumptive HabitualV-IMPFV-AC /ho/-PC FUT-ACā-t-ᴐ hò-wɛ k-ᴐ'he (probably) comes'
Contrafactive HabitualV-IMPFV-AC /ho/-IMPFV-ACbɛs-t-ᴐ hò-t-ᴐ'he had sat regularly'
Unspecified PerfectiveV-PERF-ACsad-e-ᴐ'he called'
Present PerfectiveV-PERF-AC PRES-PCsad-e-ᴐ h-`ɛ'he has called'
Past PerfectiveV-PERF-AC PAST-ACsad-e-ᴐ th-ᴐ'he had called'
Presumptive PerfectiveV-PERF-AC (/w/-AC) /ho/-PC FUT-ACg-ī-ᴐ (w-ᴐ) hò-wɛ k-ᴐ'he must have gone'
Contrafactive PerfectiveV-PERF-AC /ho/-IMPFV-ACā-e-ᴐ hò-t-ᴐ'if he had come'

External links

Writing Gojri: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Constraints on a Standardized Orthography for the Gujars of South Asia(approve sites)

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