Languages

Japanese

Fact corner

  • Language: Japanese
  • Alternate names: Nihongo, Nipongo, 日本語, にほんご
  • SIL-code: Ethnologue:jpn
  • Language family: Japonic
  • Number of speakers: 122,433,899
  • Script: Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana

Introduction

Japanese is a language spoken in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is an agglutinative language and is distinguished by a complex system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, and a person mentioned in conversation.

Japanese vocabulary has been heavily influenced by loanwords from other languages. A vast number of words were borrowed from Chinese, or created from Chinese models, over a period of at least 1,500 years. Since the late 19th century, Japanese has borrowed a considerable number of words from Indo-European languages, primarily English. Because of the special trade relationship between Japan and first Portugal in the 16th century, and then mainly the Netherlands in the 17th century, Portuguese and Dutch have also been influential.

The Alphabet

The Japanese language is written with a combination of three different types of scripts: modified Chinese characters called kanji (漢字), and two syllabic scripts made up of modified Chinese characters, hiragana (平仮名) and katakana (片仮名). The Latin alphabet, rōmaji (ローマ字), is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, and when entering Japanese text into a computer. Western style Indian numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also commonplace.

The verb

Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("thou", "you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The plain form of all verbs ends in u. There are very few irregular verbs.

Japanese Verb Conjugation

Click verbs to conjugate them in the following verb conjugation tables:

歩く - aruku

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
Indicative INFORMAL 歩く aruku 歩かない arukanai
FORMAL 歩きます arukimasu 歩きません arukimasen
Imperative INFORMAL I 歩け aruke 歩く な aruku na
INFORMAL II 歩きなさい arukinasai 歩きなさる な arukinasaru na
INFORMAL III 歩いて ください aruite kudasai 歩かない で ください arukanai de kudasai
FORMAL お歩き なさいませ oaruki nasaimase お歩き なさいます な oaruki nasaimasu na
Presumptive
Volitional
INFORMAL I 歩こう arukō 歩くまい arukumai
INFORMAL II 歩く だろう aruku darō 歩かない だろう arukanai darō
FORMAL I 歩きましょう arukimasyō 歩きますまい arukimasumai
FORMAL II 歩く でしょう aruku desyō 歩かない でしょう arukanai desyō
Provisional INFORMAL 歩けば arukeba 歩かなければ arukanakereba
FORMAL 歩きませば
歩きますれば
arukimaseba
arukimasureba
歩きません なら arukimasen nara

Tense Inflected form
Informal Past (~ ta Form) 歩いた
Formal Past 歩きました
Informal Past Negative 歩かなかった
Formal Past Negative 歩きませんでした
~ te Form 歩いて
Conditional 歩けば
Passive 歩かれる
Causative 歩かせる
Potential 歩ける

Grouping of Japanese Verbs

Group 1: ~ U ending verbs

The basic form of Group 1 verbs end with "~u". This group is also called Consonant-stem verbs or Godan-doushi (Godan verbs).

  • hanasu (話す) - to speak
  • kaku (書く) - to write
  • kiku (聞く) - to listen

Group 2: ~ Iru and ~ Eru ending verbs

The basic form of Group 2 verbs end with either "~iru" or "~eru". This group is also called Vowel-stem-verbs or Ichidan-doushi (Ichidan verbs).

Iru ending verbs
  • kiru (着る) - to wear
  • miru (見る) - to see
Eru ending verbs
  • akeru (開ける) - to open
  • ageru (あげる) - to give

Group 3: Irregular verbs

There are only two irregular verbs, kuru (来る) 'to come' and suru (する) 'to do'.

External links

References

  • Lange, Roland. Japanese Verbs. Barron's Educational Series. New York. 1991.
  • Tanimori, Masahiro. Handbook of Japanese Grammar. 1 edition. Tokyo. 1994.
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