Fact corner

  • Language: Japanese
  • Alternate names: Nihongo, Nipongo, 日本語, にほんご
  • SIL-code: Ethnologue:jpn
  • Language family: Japonic
  • Number of speakers: 122,433,899
  • Script: Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana


Japanese is a language spoken in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is an agglutinative language and is distinguished by a complex system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, and a person mentioned in conversation.

Japanese vocabulary has been heavily influenced by loanwords from other languages. A vast number of words were borrowed from Chinese, or created from Chinese models, over a period of at least 1,500 years. Since the late 19th century, Japanese has borrowed a considerable number of words from Indo-European languages, primarily English. Because of the special trade relationship between Japan and first Portugal in the 16th century, and then mainly the Netherlands in the 17th century, Portuguese and Dutch have also been influential.

The Alphabet

The Japanese language is written with a combination of three different types of scripts: modified Chinese characters called kanji (漢字), and two syllabic scripts made up of modified Chinese characters, hiragana (平仮名) and katakana (片仮名). The Latin alphabet, rōmaji (ローマ字), is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, and when entering Japanese text into a computer. Western style Indian numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also commonplace.

The verb

Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("thou", "you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The plain form of all verbs ends in u. There are very few irregular verbs.

Japanese Verb Conjugation

Click verbs to conjugate them in the following verb conjugation tables:

着く - tsuku

Indicative INFORMAL 着く tsuku 着かない tsukanai
FORMAL 着きます tsukimasu 着きません tsukimasen
Imperative INFORMAL I 着け tsuke 着く な tsuku na
INFORMAL II 着きなさい tsukinasai 着きなさる な tsukinasaru na
INFORMAL III 着いて ください tsuite kudasai 着かない で ください tsukanai de kudasai
FORMAL お着き なさいませ otsuki nasaimase お着き なさいます な otsuki nasaimasu na
INFORMAL I 着こう tsukō 着くまい tsukumai
INFORMAL II 着く だろう tsuku darō 着かない だろう tsukanai darō
FORMAL I 着きましょう tsukimasyō 着きますまい tsukimasumai
FORMAL II 着く でしょう tsuku desyō 着かない でしょう tsukanai desyō
Provisional INFORMAL 着けば tsukeba 着かなければ tsukanakereba
FORMAL 着きませば
着きません なら tsukimasen nara

Tense Inflected form
Informal Past (~ ta Form) 着いた
Formal Past 着きました
Informal Past Negative 着かなかった
Formal Past Negative 着きませんでした
~ te Form 着いて
Conditional 着けば
Passive 着かれる
Causative 着かせる
Potential 着ける

Grouping of Japanese Verbs

Group 1: ~ U ending verbs

The basic form of Group 1 verbs end with "~u". This group is also called Consonant-stem verbs or Godan-doushi (Godan verbs).

  • hanasu (話す) - to speak
  • kaku (書く) - to write
  • kiku (聞く) - to listen

Group 2: ~ Iru and ~ Eru ending verbs

The basic form of Group 2 verbs end with either "~iru" or "~eru". This group is also called Vowel-stem-verbs or Ichidan-doushi (Ichidan verbs).

Iru ending verbs
  • kiru (着る) - to wear
  • miru (見る) - to see
Eru ending verbs
  • akeru (開ける) - to open
  • ageru (あげる) - to give

Group 3: Irregular verbs

There are only two irregular verbs, kuru (来る) 'to come' and suru (する) 'to do'.

External links


  • Lange, Roland. Japanese Verbs. Barron's Educational Series. New York. 1991.
  • Tanimori, Masahiro. Handbook of Japanese Grammar. 1 edition. Tokyo. 1994.
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