!Korana is an extinct central Khoisan language which shows some lexical and grammatical similarities to Nama, the largest of the still-existing Khoisan languages. It was spoken in the region surrounding the town of Kimberly, near the borders of Northern Cape and Orange Free States, in what is now the Republic of South Africa.
!Korana was spoken by the kei!Korana, or Great Korana (also Taaibosh) tribe.
!Korana has a rich tense and aspect system, which is one of the main ways in which it can be distinguished from Nama. !Korana has a total of 7 tense-aspect (TMA) markers:
|n~i||"must" (modal auxiliary)|
|ka||"could" (modal auxiliary|
These TMA markers can also be combined in eight different ways to denote remote past, continuousness, doubt, or to add emphasis to, for example, the recentness of the past.
Four men once upon a time went hunting
(he) just fell backwards
Negation in !Korana is expressed the negative particles tama and te. Negation precedes the final tense/aspect markers, but follows the main verb.
Why does my house not answer?
Perhaps you can see, (or) can you not see?
!Korana has a productive class of verbal compounds.
(she) lifted up the child
(it, the rabbit) was hit in its mouth and its mouth was split open
Verbs can also be reduplicated, which gives them a causative reading.
|to pound||to pulverize|
|to learn||to teach|
- The Syntax of !Korana(approve sites)
- Maingard, L.F. 1962. Korana Folktales. Witwatersrand University Press. Johannesburg.