Languages

Lithuanian

Fact corner

  • Language: Lithuanian
  • Alternate names: LIUTUVISKAI, LIETUVI, LITOVSKIY, LITEWSKI, LITAUISCHE, lietuvių kalba
  • SIL-code: Ethnologue:lit
  • Language family: Indo-European, Baltic, Eastern
  • Number of speakers: 4,000,000
  • Script: -

Introduction

Lithuanian is the official state language of Lithuania. Lithuanian is a Baltic language, closely related to Latvian, although they are not mutually intelligible.

The verb

There are three verbal conjugations.

All verbs have present, past (preterite), past iterative (imperfect) and future tenses of the indicative mood, subjunctive (or conditional) and imperative moods (both without distinction of tenses) and infinitive. These forms, except the infinitive, are conjugative, having two singular, two plural persons and the third person form common both for plural and singular.

Lithuanian has the richest participle system of all Indo-European languages, having participles derived from all tenses with distinct active and passive forms, and several gerund forms.

Sample verb: bū́ti

(participles not included)

INDICATIVE IMPERATIVE CONDITIONAL
Present Preterite Imperfect Future
àš  esù  buvaũ bū́davau bū́siu - bū́čiau
tu  esì  buvaĩ bū́davai bū́si bū́k bū́tum
jìs  yrà  bùvo bū́davo bùs tegùl būña bū́tų
mẽs  ẽsame  bùvome bū́davome bū́sime bū́kime bū́tume
jū̃s  ẽsate  bùvote bū́davote bū́site bū́kite bū́tute
jiẽ  yrà  bùvo bū́davo bùs tegùl būña bū́tų

Conjunctive

Sg m.  esą̃s 
Sg f.  ẽsanti 
Sg n.  esą̃ 
Pl m.  esą̃ 
Pl f.  ẽsančios 

References

  • Eckert Rainer et al.. Die baltischen Sprachen. Eine Einführung. Langenscheidt Verlag. 5 edition. Leipzig. 1994.
  • Paulauskiene, Aldona. Gramatines lietuviu kalbos veiksmazodzio kategorijos. Vilnius. 1979.
Categories: Indo-European | Baltic | Language

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