Languages

Livvi

Fact corner

Introduction

Livvi is the variety of Karelian language spoken by Olonets Karelians, traditionally inhabiting the area between Ladoga and Onega lakes, northward of Svir River.

Before World War II, Olonets Karelian was spoken both in Russia and in Finland, in the easternmost part of Finnish Karelia. After Finland was forced to cede large parts of Karelia to the USSR after the war, the Finnish Olonets Karelian population was resettled in Finland. Today there are still native speakers of Olonets Karelian living scattered throughout Finland, but all areas in which Olonets Karelian remain a community language are found in Russia.

The Verb

Verb conjugation of Livvi follows follows to a great extent that of Karelian.

Sample verb: pestäkseh 'to wash onself'

INDICATIVE POTENTIAL CONDITIONAL IMPERATIVE
Present Past
Sg.1 pezemmös pezimmös pessemmös pezizimmös -
Sg.2 pezettös pezittös pessettös pezizittös pezei
Sg.3 pezehes (pezeh) pezihes (pezih) pessehes pezizihes peskähes
Pl.1 pezemmökseh pezimmökseh pessemmökseh pezizimmökseh peskiämmökseh
Pl.2 pezettökseh pezittökseh pessettökseh pezizittökseh peskiättökseh
Pl.3 pestähes pestihes pestähes pestäzihes pestähes

The table above doesn't contain compound tenses formed with auxilary verbs;

  • ei 'not' auxiliary is used to form negation forms. E.g., ei pezei 'is not washing himself'.
  • on 'to have' auxiliary is used to form perfective tenses. E.g., on pessyhes 'has washed himself'.

References

http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514283703/isbn9789514283703.pdf(approve sites)

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