Languages

Low Saxon

(redirected from Languages.LowGerman)

Fact corner

  • Language: Low Saxon
  • Alternate names: NEDDERSASSISCH, NIEDERSÄCHSISCH, NEDERSAKSISCH, LOW GERMAN, PLATTDÜÜTSCH, NEDDERDÜÜTSCH
  • SIL-code: Ethnologue:nds
  • Language family: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon
  • Number of speakers: 10,000,000 (Language use: Vulnerable)
  • Script:

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Introduction

The dialects listed are in Germany. The first three dialects listed are Western Low Saxon, the other two are Eastern Low Saxon. Not intelligible to speakers of Standard German. A direct descendant of Old Saxon, related to English.

20 to 30 dialects with differing inherent intelligibility, depending on geographic distance. They did not experience the second consonantal shift of the 8th and 9th centuries (J. Thiessen, U. of Winnipeg 1976). Its modern forms have been largely suppressed until recently, and have received much German, Dutch, or Frisian influence, depending on the area.

Low Saxon varieties listed as separate entries in the Netherlands, where they have official status. Pomerano is used in Latin America. Westphaelian and Plautdietsch also have separate entries. Most speakers in Germany are bilingual in Standard German. Officially recognized as a regional (separate) language in 8 states of Germany and in the northeastern provinces of the Netherlands. Recognized as a regional (separate) language by the European Charta on Languages. Printed fairly widely outside Europe, particularly in North and Latin America, Australia, Southern Africa, Eastern Europe (Siberia, Kazakhstan). Dictionary. Bible 1478-1534.

The verb

 ''' Regular verbs
 Infinitive:'''      arven   fodern   setten  arbeeden  hosten
 Past participle: arvt    fodert   sett    arbeed    host

 '''                 Present
 '''1sg ik           arv     foder    sett    arbeed    host
 2sg du           arvst   foderst  settst  arbeedst  host
 3sg he/se/dat    arvt    fodert   sett    arbeed(t) host
 1pl wi           arvt    fodert   sett    arbeed(t) host
 2pl ji           arvt    fodert   sett    arbeed(t) host
 3pl se           arvt    fodert   sett    arbeed(t) host

                  '''Imperfekt
 '''1sg              arv     foder    sett    arbeed    host
 2sg              arvst   foderst  settst  arbeedst  host
 3sg              arv     foder    sett    arbeed    host
 pl               arven   fodern   setten  arbeeden  hosten

 '''                 Imperative
 '''sg               arv     foder    sett    arbeed    host
 pl               arvt    fodert   sett    arbeed(t) host

 '''Auxiliary verbs
 Infinitive:'''      sien/we(s)en hebben warrn             wullen    schallen kön(n)en
 Past participle: we(s)en  haat       worrn             wullt     schullt  kunnt

 '''                 Present
 '''1sg ik           bün      hebb       ward              will      schall   kann
 2sg du           büs(t)   hess/hest(t)warrs(t)         wiss      schass   kanns
 3sg he/se/dat    is       hett       ward              will      schall   kann
 1pl wi           sün(d)   hebben     ward/warrn        wüllt     schallen köönt
 2pl ji           sünd     hebbt      ward              wüllt     schallt  köönt
 3pl se           sünd     hebben     ward              wüllt     schallen köönt

                  '''Imperfekt
 '''1sg ik           weer     harr       weur/wöör         wull     schull    kunn
 2sg du           weers(t) harrs(t)   weurs(t)/wöörs(t) wulls(t) schuss    kunns(t)
 3sg he/se/dat    weer     harr       weur/wöör         wull     schull    kunn
 pl               weern    harrn      weuren/wöörn      wullen/  schullen/ kunnen/
                                                        wullt    schullt   kunnt

 '''                 Imperative
 '''1sg ik           wees     hebb       ward
 3pl se           weest    hebbt      ward

 English /	Deutsch/	platt/	Anglo-Saxon

 ask/	fragen/	frogen/	áscian, frignan
 attack/	angreifen/	angriepen/	gesécan
 be/	sein/	sien, wesen, blieven/	wesan, béon
 become/	werden/	warrn, bleven/	weorðan
 break/	brechen/	breken, tobreken/	brecan, tóberstan
 bury/	begraben/	begraven/	bebyrgan
 call/	rufen/	ropen/	hátan, ceallian
 can, be able/	können/	können/	cunnan, magan
 change/	wechseln/	wesseln/	hweorfan
 cry/	weinen/	weenen/	wépan, grétan
 defend/	abwehren, verteidigen/	afwehrn/	werian
 die/	sterben/	döen, starven, doodbleven/	ácwellan, forðfaran, sweltan
 divide/	teilen/	deelen/	gedælan, tótwæman
 do/	tun/	don/	dón
 dream/	träumen/	drömen/	swefnian
 drive/	fahren/	fohrn/	ádrífan
 feel/	fühlen/	feulen/	ongietan
 fight/	kämpfen/	kämpen/	feohtan
 fly/	fliegen/	fleegen/	fléogan
 force/	zwingen/	dwingen/	geðýn
 go /	gehen /	gahn/	gangan, faran, líðan
 have/	haben/	hebben/	ágan, habban
 hear/	hören/	hören, heurn/	híeran
 help/	helfen/	helpen/	helpan, fultumian
 know/	wissen/	weten/	witan, cnáwan
 let/	lassen/	laten/	lætan
 live/	leben/	leven/	libban, lifian
 look/	schauen, gucken/	kieken/	lócian, wlátian
 make/	machen/	maken/	macian, gewyrcan
 own/	besitzen, eignen/	besitten/	ágan
 read/	lesen/	lesen/	rædan
 run/	rennen/	rennen/	rennan, iernan
 sail/	segeln, seefahren/	sailen/	siglan
 shout/	rufen/	ropen/	hríeman
 sleep/	schlafen/	slapen/	slæpan, swefan
 smile/	lächeln/	smustern/	smearcian
 speak/	sprechen/	snacken/	sprecan, mælan, cweðan
 stay/	bleiben/	blieven/	ábídan [?]
 swim/	schwimmen/	swimmen/	swimman
 take/	nehmen/	nehmen/	niman
 think/	denken/	denken/	ðencan, hycgan
 try/	versuchen/	versöken/	fandian
 use/	gebrauchen/	bruken/	brúcan, néotan
 wait/	warten/	teuben, warten/	onbídan
 walk/	gehen/	gahn/	gangan, stæppan
 write/	schreiben/	schrieven/	wrítan

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