Mapudungun is a language isolate spoken in central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people.
The Mapuche are partly bilingual in Spanish.
Verbs can be finite or non-finite (non-finite endings: -n, -el, -etew, -lu, -am, etc.), are intransitive or transitive,
Verbs are conjugated according to
- person (first, second and third),
- number (singular, dual and plural),
- voice (active, agentless passive and reflexive-reciprocal, plus two applicatives) and
- mood (indicative, imperative and subjunctive).
In the indicative, the present (zero) and future (-(y)a) tenses are distinguished. There are a number of aspects: the progressive, resultative and habitual are well established; some forms that seem to mark some subtype of perfect are also found. Other verb morphology includes an evidential marker (reportative-mirative), directionals (cislocative, translocative, andative and ambulative, plus an interruptive and continuous action marker) and modal markers (sudden action, faked action, immediate action, etc.). There is productive noun incorporation, and the case can be made for root compounding morphology.
pe, 'to see'