Languages

Pashtu

Languages.Pushto History

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* Language family: [[!Indo-European]], Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto
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* Language family: [[!Indo-European]], [[!Indo-Iranian]], Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto
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Pashto is an [[!Indo-European]] language spoken primarily in Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. In Afghanistan, Pashto is a national and official language.
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Pashto is an [[!Indo-European]] language spoken primarily in Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. In Afghanistan, Pashto is a national and official language (along with [[Dari]]).
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There are two major dialects of Pashto: Western Pashto spoken in Afghanistan and in the capital, Kabul, and Eastern Pashto spoken in northeastern Pakistan. Most speakers of Pashto speak these two dialects. Two other dialects are also distinguished: Southern Pashto, spoken in Baluchistan (western Pakistan and eastern Iran) and in Kandahar, Afghanistan; Central Pashto spoken in northern Pakistan (Wazirstan).

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The name Pashto is thought to derive from the reconstructed proto-Iranian form, parsawā 'Persian' language. In northen Afghanistan speakers of Pashto are called Pakhtūn; in sourthen Afghanistan they are known as Pashtūn, and as Pathān or Afghan in Pakistan.
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(:title Pashtu:)
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%rfloat%Attach:Pashtu.gif|Pashtu speaking areas
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(:cellnr:) Pl.1
(:cell:) muγ̌ yu
(:cell:) muγ̌ wu
(:cellnr:) Pl.2
(:cell:) tāse yāst/yəi
(:cell:) tāse wəi
(:cellnr rowspan=2:) Pl.3
(:cell rowspan=2:) duy di
(:cell:) (m) duy wi
(:cellnr:) (f) duy we

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(:cell:) (f) dā wa
to:
(:cellnr:) (f) dā wa
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(:description Pashtu language and verbs:)
(:keywords Pashtu, language, verb, conjugation, tense, mood:)
>>rframe font-size:smaller<<
!!Fact corner
* Language: Pashtu
* Alternate names: Mahsudi, Pashtu, Pushto, Pushtu, Quetta-Kandahar Pashto, Pakhto, Yusufzai Pashto
* [[SIL-code]]: %newwin%[[Ethnologue:pus]]
* Language family: [[!Indo-European]], Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto
* Number of speakers: 20,304,734
* Script: [[!Arabic script]]
>><<
(:*toc:)
!!Introduction
Pashto is an [[!Indo-European]] language spoken primarily in Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. In Afghanistan, Pashto is a national and official language.

!!The verb

The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses/moods:
* present,
* subjunctive,
* simple past,
* past progressive,
* present perfect and
* past perfect.

In any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect), Pashto is an ergative language; i.e., transitive verbs in any of the past tenses agree with the object of the sentence

!!!Sample verb: to be

(:table border=1 cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0:)
(:cellnr:)
(:cell:) '''Present'''
(:cell:) '''Past'''
(:cellnr:) Sg.1
(:cell:) zə yəm
(:cell:) zə wəm
(:cellnr:) Sg.2
(:cell:) tə ye
(:cell:) tə we
(:cellnr rowspan=2:) Sg.3
(:cell rowspan=2:) dai dae
dā da
(:cell:) (m) dai wə
(:cell:) (f) dā wa
(:tableend:)

[[!Language]]

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