Languages

Runic Swedish

Fact corner

Introduction

Runic Swedish was spoken in a period between 800-1225 AD. Runic Swedish developed from Old Scandinavian, which was a common Germanic language spoken by all ancient Scandinavians. Runic Swedish is also referred as a dialect of Old East Norse, with the main dialects being Runic Swedish and Runic Danish. They are called runic because the body of text appears in the runic alphabet.

The Runic Swedish Verb

The Runic Swedish Verb is conjugated in

  • 3 moods: Indicative, Conjunctive and Imperative;
  • 2 tenses (indicative and conjunctive moods): Present and Past;
  • 2 numbers: singular and plural; and
  • 3 persons.

Sample verb: kalla

Infinitivekallaᚴᛅᛚᛚᛅ
Participlekallatᚴᛅᛚᛚᛅᛏ
INDICATIVE CONJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE
Present Past Present Past
Sg.1 kallaR; kalla kallaþa kalla kallaþa -
Sg.2 kallaR kallaþiR; kallaþi kalleR kallaþiR; kallaþi kalla!
Sg.3 kallaR kallaþi kalle kallaþi -
Pl.1 kallum kallaþum kallem kallaþem kallum!
Pl.2 kallin kallaþin kallen kallaþen kallin!
Pl.3 kalla kallaþu kalle kallaþe -

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