Languages

Russian

Fact corner

Introduction

Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of three (or, according to some authorities, four) living members of the East Slavic languages; the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn, often considered a dialect of Ukrainian).

The verb

Grammatical conjugation is subject to three persons in two numbers and two simple tenses (present/future and past), with periphrastic forms for the future and subjunctive, as well as imperative forms and present/past participles, distinguished by adjectival and adverbial usage (see adjectival participle and adverbial participle). There are two voices, active and middle/passive, which is constructed by the addition of a reflexive suffix -ся/сь/- to the active form.

The loss of three of the former six tenses has been offset by the development, as in other Slavic languages, of verbal aspect. Most verbs come in pairs, one with imperfective or continuous connotation, the other with perfective or completed, usually formed with a (prepositional) prefix, but occasionally using a different root. E.g., спать [spatʲ] (to sleep) is imperfective; поспать [pʌˈspatʲ](to take a nap) is perfective.

Sample verb: читать / прочитать

IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT PERFECTIVE ASPECT
Infinitive читать прочитать
Present Sg.1 читаю прочитываю
Sg.2 читаешь прочитываешь
Sg.3 читает прочитывает
Pl.1 читаем прочитываем
Pl.2 читаете прочитываете
Pl.3 читают прочитывают
Past Sg.m читал прочитал
Sg.f читала прочитала
Sg.n читало прочитало
Pl читали прочитали
Future Sg.1 буду читать прочитаю
Sg.2 будешь читать прочитаешь
Sg.3 будет читать прочитает
Pl.1 будем читать прочитаем
Pl.2 будете читать прочитаете
Pl.3 будут читать прочитают
Conditional Sg.m читал бы прочитал бы
Sg.f читала бы прочитала бы
Sg.n читало бы прочитало бы
Pl читали бы прочитали бы
Imperative Sg читай прочитай
Pl читайте прочитайте

Russian verb conjugation

Conjugate Russian verbs:

Verb Wiki

Verbix Website

edit SideBar

Copyright Verbix 1995-2016