Languages

Spanish

Fact corner

Introduction

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language originally from the northern area of Spain. It is the official language of Spain, most Latin American countries, and Equatorial Guinea and Western Sahara, in Africa. In total, more than twenty-five nations and territories use Spanish as their primary language, which is spoken in every continent around the world. It is one of six official languages of the United Nations.

Latin is the ancestor of Spanish. It didn't develop from Classical Latin but -- like other Romance languages -- from non-literary variety of Latin, the Vulgar Latin. Vulgar Latin evolved to Old Spanish, which in turn developed into modern Spanish. In the latter development, the verb conjugations underwent only minor changes.

Spanish Verb Types

Spanish verbs are divided in regular and irregular verbs. The vast majority of the verbs are regular. All the verbs are also divided in conjugation groups according to the ending in the infinitive (See the groups under regular verbs).

Note! By checking the sample verbs you also see the list of other verbs belonging to the same type of conjugation.

Regular verbs

Verbix shows regular forms in black. Check the verb conjugations for each verb below.

  • 1st conjugation (I), verbs ending in -ar : cantar (to sing).
  • 2nd conjugation (II), verbs ending in -er : comer (to eat).
  • 3rd conjugation (III), verbs ending in -ir : vivir (to live).

Sample verb (1st conjugation): cantar

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present Imperfect Preterite Future Present Imperfect Future
Sg.1 canto cantaba canté cantará cante cantara / cantase cantare cantaría -
Sg.2 cantas / cantás 2 cantabas cantaste cantarás cantes cantaras / cantases cantares cantarías canta!
Sg.3 canta cantaba cantó cantará cante cantara / cantase cantare cantaría cante! 1
Pl.1 cantamos cantabamos cantamos cantarámos cantemos cantaramos / cantasemos cantaremos cantaríamos cantemos! 1
Pl.2 cantáis / cantan 3 cantábais cantasteis cantaréis cantéis cantárais / cantáseis cantáreis cantaríais cantad!
Pl.3 cantan cantaban cantaron cantarán canten cantaran / cantasen cantaren cantarían canten! 1

Notes:

  1. Form borrowed from corresponding form in subjunctive
  2. Form used in Latin America; e.g., vos cantás (Iberian Spanish: tú cantas )
  3. Form used in Latin America; e.g., ustedes cantan (Iberian Spanish: vosotros cantáis )

Click verbs to conjugate them in the table above!
amar, cantar, intentar.

Irregular verbs

Verbix shows irregular forms in red. Check the verb conjugations for each verb below.

Irregularities in Present tense

Verbs with diptongue.

Change in the stem vocale.

Consonants are added in the stem.

  • C > CZ: conocer (II)
  • N > NG: tener (II)
  • L > LG: valer (II), salir (III)
  • S > SG: asir (III)
  • U > UY: huir (III)
  • G added: caer (II), oír (III)

Other irregularities.

  • B > Y in subjunctive: haber (II)
  • C > G: hacer (II)
  • AB > EP: caber (II)
  • EC > IG: decir (III)

Irregularities in Preterite tense

Change in stem vocale

  • E > I: gemir (III)
  • O > U: dormir (III)

Strong preterites

  • 1st conjugation: andar, dar, estar
  • 2nd conjugation: caber, haber, hacer, placer, poder, poner, querer, responder, saber, ser, tener, traer, ver
  • 3rd conjugation: conducir, decir, ir, venir

Irregularities in future and conditional.

Loss of the protonic vocal

  • saber (II)

Loss of vocal and consonant

  • 2nd conjugation: hacer
  • 3rd conjugation: decir

Loss of vocal and addition of consonant

  • 2nd conjugation: poner
  • 3rd conjugation: salir

Ortographic modifications

Verbix shows ortographic modifications in blue. Check the verb conjugations for each verb below.

Modifications for preserving the pronounciation

1st conjugation

  • C > QU: buscar
  • G > GU: jugar
  • GU > GÜ: averiguar
  • Z > C: cruzar

2nd and 3rd conjugations

  • C > Z: vencer (II), esparcir (III)
  • G > J: coger (II), dirigir (III)
  • GU > G: seguir (III)
  • QU > C: delinquir (III)

Changes due to ortographic rules

Loss of atonic i

  • bullir (III), bruir (III)

Atonic i changes to y.

  • caer (II)
  • oír (III)
  • huir (III)

Change of the ortographic accent in verbs ending in -iar and -uar

  • confiar
  • continuar

Other changes of the ortographic accent

  • U > Ú: aullar
  • I > Í: airar

See also

References

Verb Wiki

Verbix Website

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