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Elfdalian is a linguistic variety of the Scandinavian language branch spoken in the old parish of Övdaln, which is located in the south-eastern part of Älvdalen Municipality in Northern Dalarna, Sweden.
Traditionally regarded as a Swedish dialect, Elfdalian is today regarded by several linguists as a separate language. As some other Dalecarlian vernaculars spoken north of the Lake Siljan, Elfdalian retains numerous old grammatical and phonological features that have not changed considerably since Old Norse and is considered to be the most conservative and best preserved vernacular within the Dalecarlian branch.
The Elfdalian alphabet consists of the following letters: Aa Ąą Bb Cc Dd Đð Ee Ęę Ff Gg Hh Ii Įį Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Ųų Vv Ww Xx Yy Y̨y̨ Zz Åå Ą̊ą̊ Ää Öö
Besides letters occurring in the Swedish alphabet, Elfdalian has letters with ogonek, denoting nasal vowels: Ąą, Ęę, Įį, Ųų, Y̨y̨ and Ą̊ą̊. Additionally, it contains the letter Ðð for the voiced dental fricative.
Elfdalian has a highly complex morphological structure, partially inherited from its Old Norse ancestor. Verbs are conjugated in the indicative and imperative moods, active and passive voice, present, imperfect and perfect tense. They are further conjugated in the singular, 1st person plural, 2nd person plural and plural 3rd persons.
Click verbs to conjugate them in the table above!
- Yair Sapir: Elfdalian, the Vernacular of Övdaln(approve sites)
- Wikipedia article in Swedish about Dalecarlian dialects(approve sites)
- Elfdalian verbs(approve sites)