Turkish is spoken as a first language by over 63 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Cyprus, with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania and other parts of Eastern Europe. Turkish is also spoken by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly in Germany.
The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination.
Turkish verbs indicate person. They can be made negative, potential ("can"), or impotential ("cannot"). Furthermore, Turkish verbs show tense (present, past, inferential, future, and aorist), mood (conditional, imperative, necessitative, and optative), and aspect. Negation is expressed by the infix -me- immediately following the stem.
The verbs are regular and can be conjugated at www.verbix.com.
There is a defectice verb, whose stem is i- and which means "be". The missing forms of i- are supplied by ol-: the infinitive olmak is an example, since there is no infinitive *imek.
The following table shows the enclitic and independent forms where the stem i- is applied.
|Enclitic forms1||Independent forms|
|Present||Past||Past||Past Conditional||Past Inferential||Past Inferential Conditional|
- Enclitic forms are added in the main word; In this sample to Izmir-de 'in Izmir'. Thus, Izmir'deyim 'I am in Izmir', etc.