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Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. It is known primarily from Codex Argenteus, a 6th century copy of a 4th century Bible translation. Other languages belonging to the East Germanic group of languages -- Burgundian and Vandalic -- are known only from proper names that survived in historical accounts.

The Gothic Verb

Verbal inflexions in Gothic have

  • two grammatical voices: the active and the medial;
  • three numbers: singular, dual (except in the third person), and plural;
  • two tenses: present and preterite (derived from a former perfect);
  • three grammatical moods: indicative, subjunctive (from an old optative form) and imperative;
  • as well as three kinds of nominal forms: a present infinitive, a present participle, and a past passive.

Not all tenses and persons are represented in all moods and voices – some conjugations use auxiliary forms.

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