Old Frisian

Fact corner


Old Frisian was a Germanic language spoken along the North Sea coast, in southern Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Old Frisian was spoken from 1150 to 1550. Old Frisian evolved into Middle Frisian spoken from the 16th to the 19th century.

The Old Frisian verb

The Old Frisian verb has:

  • 3 grammatical moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative;
  • 2 simple tenses: present and preterite;
  • 2 grammatical numbers: singular and plural;
  • 3 grammatical persons: first person, second person, and third person.

Sample verb sîn 'to be'

Present Preterite Present Preterite
Sg.1 ? ? ? ? -
Sg.2 ? ? ? ? ?
Sg.3 is was ? -
Plural send wêron ? ? ?


  • Robinson, Orrin W.. Old English and its closest relatives. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1992.

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